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توهم عدم مطابقة القرآن الكريم بين المبتدأ و الخبر في العدد(*)

مضمون الشبهة:

يتوهم بعض المدعين أن القرآن الكريم خالف قواعد اللغة ولم يطابق بين المبتدأ والخبر في العدد، ويستدلون على ذلك بقوله عز وجل: )هؤلاء ضيفي( (الحجر: ٦٨)؛ حيث جاء المبتدأ اسم إشارة "هؤلاء" يدل على الجمع، بينما جاء الخبر "ضيفي" مفردا، والصواب في ظنهم أن يقال: "هؤلاء ضيوفي" بجمع الخبر**.

وجه إبطال الشبهة:

الأصل في الخبر المفرد أن يطابق المبتدأ في نوعه تذكيرا وتأنيثا، وفي عدده إفرادا وتثنية وجمعا.

ومن لا يتدبر قوله تعالى: )هؤلاء ضيفي(، يظن أن فيه مخالفة بين الخبر والمبتدأ في العدد؛ إذ جاء الخبر "ضيفي" مفردا، في حين جاء المبتدأ "هؤلاء" جمعا، وهذا ليس بخطأ كما زعموا؛ لأن علماء اللغة قالوا: إن كلمة "ضيفي" جاءت هنا مصدرا، والخبر إذا جاء مصدرا يجب أن يكون مذكرا ومفردا، وهذا هو القياس.

التفصيل:

إن "ضيفي" جاءت هنا مصدرا، والخبر إذا جاء مصدرا يجب أن يكون مفردا مذكرا، وفقا لقواعد اللغة، فقوله تعالى: )هؤلاء ضيفي(، ضيف هنا يقع للمفرد والمثنى والجمع على لفظ الواحد؛ وذلك لأنه في الأصل مصدر الفعل ضاف ضيفا، قال الشاعر:

لا تعدمي الدهر شفار الجازر

للضيف، والضيف أحق زائر

كما أنه يجوز فيه التثنية والجمع، ومن ذلك: "رجال صوم، وفطر، وزور"[1].

والقرآن الكريم و الاستعمالات العربية عامرة بالشواهد التي تدل على ذلك، ومن أمثلة ذلك في القرآن الكريم قوله عز وجل: )إنا رسول رب العالمين (16)( (الشعراء)، وقوله عز وجل: )نخرجكم طفلا( (الحج: 5)، وقوله عز وجل: )لا نفرق بين أحد من رسله( (البقرة: ٢٨٥)، ومن أمثلة ذلك في الاستعمال العربي: فلان كثير الدرهم والدينار؛ ومن ذلك قول الشاعر:

فقلنا أسلموا إنا أخوكم

وقد برأت من الإحن الصدور[2]

وعليه، فلا يوجد ثمة خطأ في الآية الكريمة؛ إذ جاءت الآية وفق ما تقتضيه قواعد العربية.

 


(*) .www.alkalema.com

[1]. الجامع لأحكام القرآن، القرطبي، دار إحياء التراث العربي، بيروت، 1405هـ/ 1985م، ج9، ص77.

[2]. تأويل مشكل القرآن، ابن قتيبة، شرحه ونشره: السيد أحمد صقر، المكتبة العلمية، بيروت، ط3، 1401هـ/ 1981م، ص285.

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